Prediction of helmet use among Iranian motorcycle drivers: an application of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior

Traffic Inj Prev. 2011 Jun;12(3):239-43. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2011.557757.


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of self-reported motorcycle helmet use in a sample of motorcycle riders in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The theory of planed behavior and the health belief model served as the conceptual framework for the study.

Methods: In total, 221 male motorcycle drivers participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire, including demographic characteristics and items related to both the theory of planned behavior and the health belief model constructs, was used to collect data.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 26.8 years (SD = 7.2). Multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived behavioral control significantly predicted the intention to use a motorcycle helmet (R(2)= 0.47, F = 19.5, p < .001); also, perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention significantly predicted motorcycle helmet use (R(2)= 0.49, F = 51.7, p < .001). Moreover, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action significantly predicted motorcycle helmet use (R(2)= 0.35, F = 19.5, p < .001).

Conclusion: This study concluded that motorcycle drivers who perceived a high level of behavioral control, intention to use a motorcycle helmet, few barriers, high self-efficacy, and a high number of cues to action were the most likely to use a motorcycle helmet.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cues
  • Head Protective Devices / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Intention*
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Motorcycles*
  • Psychological Theory*
  • Self Efficacy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult