The hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic (ABG) against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: a saline (WT) group, an ethanol (ET) group (15 mL/kg of body weight 20% [wt/vol] ethanol), and an ethanol + ABG (ET+ABG) group (ethanol + 100 mg/kg of body weight ABG). ABG administration led to decreased epididymal and total fat pad (P<.05) and liver weights, ameliorated prominent fatty changes around the portal triad, and reduced fat accumulation in liver. ABG caused a significant decrease of the alcohol-induced increases in hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Cytochrome P450 2E1 activity was reduced by 55%, whereas the activities of glutathione S-transferase and quinine reductase were increased by 1.5-fold (P<.05) and fourfold (P<.05), respectively, in the ET+ABG group compared with the ET group. ABG treatment significantly decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level in liver, heart, and plasma. Glutathione content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in liver were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, the oxidative damage to blood lymphocyte DNA caused by chronic alcohol ingestion was significantly decreased in the ET+ABG group. In conclusion, ABG has strong antioxidative properties and may be a promising agent for protecting against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage.