Evaluation of practical exercises using an intravenous simulator incorporating virtual reality and haptics device technologies

Nurse Educ Today. 2012 May;32(4):458-63. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2011.05.012. Epub 2011 Jun 12.


This study confirmed the educational effectiveness of practical exercises (PE) using intravenous (IV) simulators incorporating virtual reality (VR)/haptics (based on the sense of touch) device technologies. First-year nursing students (n=114) were randomly divided into three PE groups: Group A, utilizing a conventional arm model (IV arm); Group B, utilizing a VR/Haptics IV Simulator (IV sim); and Group C, utilizing both the IV arm and IV sim. Group C scored highest on procedures for conducting venipuncture. Group B was more successful in performing injections than Groups A and C. Group C required significantly less time than Group B to complete a venipuncture injection and was faster than Group A, although this difference was not significant. In conclusion, a new paradigm of PE is suggested using both IV sim and IV arm.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Clinical Competence*
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction / instrumentation*
  • Education, Nursing / methods*
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous / nursing*
  • Male
  • Nursing Education Research
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Touch
  • User-Computer Interface
  • Young Adult