Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite

Wilderness Environ Med. 2011 Jun;22(2):156-66. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2011.03.003.


The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Medicine
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / standards*
  • Frostbite / classification
  • Frostbite / physiopathology
  • Frostbite / prevention & control*
  • Frostbite / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Societies, Medical