Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake

Lancet. 2011 Jul 30;378(9789):428-38. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60478-9. Epub 2011 Jun 12.


For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Vaccines / supply & distribution
  • Bacterial Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Drug Industry
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs
  • Influenza Vaccines / supply & distribution
  • Influenza Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical*
  • Vaccines / supply & distribution*
  • Vaccines / therapeutic use


  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines