Three-dimensional cephalometric norms of Chinese adults in Hong Kong with balanced facial profile

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011 Aug;112(2):e56-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.02.045. Epub 2011 Jun 12.


Objective: The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a 3D cephalometric analysis scheme applicable to assessing dentofacial deformities; and (2) to create a normative database of 3D cephalometric measurements for adult Chinese in Hong Kong.

Study design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 male and 50 female adults with normal balanced facial profile and occlusion. Cone-beam computed tomography and stereo photogrammetry imaging were performed on all subjects. Three-dimensional virtual models were generated from imaging data, and cephalometric analysis was performed using specialized software. A new 3D cephalometric analysis scheme appropriate for orthognathic surgery as well as a new reference plane (supraorbital margin plane) for midfacial assessment was used in this study.

Results: The cephalometric norms generated in this study were comparable with those reported in the literature for conventional 2D cephalometric analysis and the unique features of Chinese faces. The results also showed significant differences between males and females in most of the facial height measurements (P < .01).

Conclusions: This is the first database of 3D cephalometric norms based on CBCT and 3D photogrammetry of the Chinese population in Hong Kong. This can be a useful reference for characterizing facial deformities in 3 dimensions. Moreover, 3D cephalometric analysis has the potential of incorporating new measurement methods that are difficult if not impossible in 2D cephalometric analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alveolar Process / diagnostic imaging
  • Cephalometry / methods*
  • Chin / diagnostic imaging
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Occlusion
  • Female
  • Frontal Bone / diagnostic imaging
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Incisor / diagnostic imaging
  • Lip / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Mandible / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandibular Condyle / diagnostic imaging
  • Maxilla / diagnostic imaging
  • Nose / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbit / diagnostic imaging
  • Photogrammetry / methods
  • Sella Turcica / diagnostic imaging
  • Sex Factors
  • Skull Base / diagnostic imaging
  • Tooth Apex / diagnostic imaging
  • Young Adult
  • Zygoma / diagnostic imaging