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, 89 (7), 1093-102

Redefining Phrymaceae: The Placement of Mimulus, Tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma


Redefining Phrymaceae: The Placement of Mimulus, Tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma

Paul M Beardsley et al. Am J Bot.


Chloroplast trnL/F and nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequence data were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships among members of tribe Mimuleae (Scrophulariaceae) and other closely related families in Lamiales. The results of these analyses led to the following conclusions. (1) The Australian genera Glossostigma and Peplidium and the taxonomically isolated Phryma join four genera of tribe Mimuleae to form a well-supported clade that is distinct from other families in the Lamiales. We refer to that clade as the subfamily Phrymoideae. (2) The genera Mazus and Lancea (tribe Mimuleae) together form a well-supported clade that we recognize as the subfamily Mazoideae. Mazoideae is weakly supported as sister to Phrymoideae. We assign Mazoideae and Phrymoideae to a redefined family Phrymaceae. (3) Mimulus is not monophyletic, because members of at least six other genera have been derived from within it. In light of the molecular evidence, it is clear that species of Phrymaceae (about 190 species) have undergone two geographically distinct radiations; one in western North America (about 130 species) and another in Australia (about 30 species). Phylogenetic interpretations of morphological evolution and biogeographical patterns are discussed.

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