Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetic (T1DM) children.
Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we included 100 Saudi children with T1DM attending the Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Clinics, and 100 healthy controls from the Department of Pediatrics, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from June to September 2010. We measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase in these patients, and compared the results with age, gender, and ethnicity-matched control subjects.
Results: The mean levels of 25OHD were significantly lower in the T1DM children compared to the controls (36.7 +/- 14.3 nmol/l versus 44.8 +/- 14.1 nmol/l). In the T1DM children, 64% were mildly, 16% were moderately, and 4% were severely vitamin D deficient as compared with 52% (mildly), 6% (moderately), and 1% (severely) in the control group. Overall, 84% of the T1DM children, and 59% of the healthy children were vitamin D deficient. There was no correlation between glycemic control and 25OHD level.
Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in diabetic children is relatively high. Therefore, screening for vitamin D deficiency and supplementation of children with low vitamin D levels should be warranted.