A mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I, which is null for the lysosomal enzyme, α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), is treated with intravenous, receptor-mediated enzyme replacement therapy of the brain. Murine IDUA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, is re-engineered for targeting to the brain as an IgG-enzyme fusion protein. The amino terminus of mature IDUA is fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the murine transferrin receptor (TfR), and this fusion protein is designated cTfRMAb-IDUA. The cTfRMAb part of the fusion protein acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused IDUA across the BBB and neuronal cell membrane via transport on the TfR. The IDUA enzyme activity of the fusion protein, 776 ± 79 units/μg protein, is comparable to recombinant IDUA. MPSI null mice, 6-8 months of age, were treated iv twice a week for 8 weeks with either saline or 1 mg/kg cTfRMAb-IDUA. The glycosoaminoglycan levels in liver, spleen, heart, and kidney were reduced by >95%, 80%, 36%, and 20%, respectively. Lysosomal inclusion bodies in the brain were quantitated from semithin sections stained with o-toluidine blue and normalized per 100 nucleoli per brain section. Treatment of the MPSI mice with the cTfRMAb-IDUA reduced intracellular lysosomal inclusion bodies by 73% in brain, as compared to the MPSI mice treated with saline. In conclusion, the reversal of pre-existing neural pathology in the brain of MPSI mice is possible with receptor-mediated enzyme replacement therapy of the brain.