Background: Prior studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association of antenatal depression with pregnancy-related diabetes. This study examined the association of diabetes and antenatal depression.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a single University of Washington Medical Center clinic between January 2004 and January 2009. The primary exposure was diabetes in pregnancy (no diabetes, preexisting diabetes, or gestational diabetes [GDM]). Antenatal depression was defined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score or current use of antidepressants. Antenatal depression was coded as (1) any depression (probable major or minor depression by PHQ-9 or current antidepressant use) and (2) major depression (probable major depression by PHQ-9 or current antidepressant use). Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between diabetes in pregnancy and antenatal depression.
Results: The prevalences of preexisting diabetes, GDM, any antenatal depression, and major antenatal depression were 9%, 18%, 13.6%, and 9.8%, respectively. In the unadjusted analysis, women with preexisting diabetes had 54% higher odds of any antenatal depression compared to those without diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.21). After adjusting for important covariates the association was attenuated (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.79-1.71). Results were similar for antenatal major depression. GDM was not associated with increased odds for any antenatal depression or antenatal major depression.
Conclusions: Neither preexisting diabetes nor GDM was independently associated with increased risk of antenatal depression.