Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of noninvasive fetal blood group genotyping.
Design: Descriptive analysis.
Setting: Dutch national reference laboratory for pregnancies complicated by alloimmunisation.
Population: All consecutive alloimmunised pregnant women for whom fetal blood group genotyping of rhesus D, c, E or of K in maternal plasma was performed from 2003 up to 2010.
Methods: The test results of each individual assay were collected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for RHD exon 5 and RHD exon 7, or the specific allele of the RHCE or KEL gene. A stringent diagnostic algorithm was applied. In the case of a negative result, the presence of fetal DNA was ascertained by the analysis of the Y chromosome-specific SRY gene or other paternal genetic markers. Results were compared with available serology after birth or genotyping results of amniotic fluid cells.
Main outcome measures: Percentage of conclusive test results and diagnostic accuracy.
Results: A total of 362 tests was performed (D: n = 168; c: n = 49; E: n = 85; K: n = 60). The median gestational age was 17 weeks (range 7-38 weeks). In 351 women (97%), a test result was issued: in seven samples, the presence of fetal DNA could not be confirmed; in two samples, non-specific amplification in the K assay led to an inconclusive result; in two samples, a maternal silent RHD gene prevented fetal RHD genotyping. No false-positive or false-negative results were found among those women for whom cord blood serology or genotyping results of amniotic fluid cells were available (n = 212).
Conclusions: Noninvasive fetal blood group genotyping is accurate and applicable in a clinical diagnostic setting.
© 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.