Background: The global accumulation of Escherichia coli with CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases partly reflects the dissemination of clonal lineages, notably ST131 and ST405. More recently, E. coli have emerged that produce NDM carbapenemase. We sought to determine the clonal diversity of E. coli with this enzyme from English hospitals, and to compare them with isolates from Pakistan and India.
Methods: The 18 NDM-positive E. coli were from hospitals in England (n = 10), Pakistan (n = 7) and India (n = 1). Isolates were compared by phylogenetic grouping, multilocus sequence typing and PFGE of XbaI-digested DNA. Isolates were screened by PCR for acquired AmpC genes, bla(CTX-M), and the 16S rRNA methylase genes armA and rmtC.
Results: Most of the isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B1 (n = 9) or D (n = 7); two were group A and none was group B2. Nine isolates from England and Pakistan belonged to the B1 lineage ST101, with seven of these clustering at >77% similarity by PFGE. Other lineages included ST405 (n = 3, group D), ST648 (n = 3, group D), the ST23 complex (one each of ST90 and ST410, both group A) and ST156 (n = 1, group D). Sixteen of 18 isolates had a group 1 CTX-M gene, 13 had a CIT-type acquired AmpC, and 16 had either or both of armA and rmtC.
Conclusions: The E. coli isolates producing NDM-1 carbapenemase belonged to six sequence types and included diverse clonal lineages. Nevertheless, isolates of B1-ST101 accounted for half the collection, and included isolates from both England and Pakistan. None of the isolates belonged to ST131 or to phylogroup B2.