Synaptic plasticity of barrel cortex is one of the most widely studied topics in neuroscience in recent years. The primary somatosensory cortex of the rodent has a good topology character,which provides an ideal experimental model for plasticity study. This system displays very strong experience-dependent plasticity both during development and in adulthood. The changes of sensory cortex's neural circuit can induce experience-dependent plasticity. In the synaptic level,thalamocortical synapse is considered to be the main location of plasticity. In the circuit level,both synapses from layer 4 to layer 2/3 and those within layer 2/3 are also the necessary parts of achieving synaptic plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex. The GABAergic inhibitory circuit may be involved in this plasticity of S1, but the exact mechanism remains unknown.