Purpose of review: Infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality following transplantation, and antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens continue to improve. This review summarizes the important studies on prophylaxis following solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) published in the last 18 months.
Recent findings: Many transplant centers use 100 days of antivirals to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after SOT. Randomized trials comparing 100-day regimens to 200 days in high-risk kidney recipients and 12 months in lung transplant patients showed distinct advantages of longer duration CMV prophylaxis. Prevention of hepatitis B virus after transplant is changing as regimens with low dose or no hepatitis B immunoglobulin are being evaluated. International consensus guidelines on the prevention of infection after stem cell transplantation are summarized and newer studies on the prevention of invasive fungal infection in this population are reviewed.
Summary: In organ transplantation, routine antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal regimens need to be tailored to address donor-transmitted infections, serological risk status of recipients, and measurable antifungal drug levels. Recent studies indicate that longer duration prophylaxis for CMV may have advantages in high-risk SOT recipients. After HSCT, regimens require adjustment based on immunological risks associated with transplant type and presence of graft vs. host disease.