The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, perceived self-efficacy and disease self-management among African Americans with diabetes mellitus. Fifty English-speaking, adult African American participants with diabetes mellitus were recruited from a community health center and a church located in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected at a single point in time utilizing the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT), Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale, and Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) Questionnaire. Bivariate associations were identified for health literacy with diabetes knowledge level; diabetes knowledge level with dietary self-care activities; and self-efficacy with dietary, exercise, and foot care self-care activities. Diabetes knowledge level and self-efficacy were independent predictors for dietary self-care activities, while self efficacy was the sole independent predictor for foot self-care. Means for health literacy and diabetes self-care activities were influenced by demographic factors examined.