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. 2011 Jun 15;9:92.
doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-92.

Trauma Is Danger

Free PMC article

Trauma Is Danger

Paul F Hwang et al. J Transl Med. .
Free PMC article


Background: Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in young adult patients. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies attempt to investigate the immunological pathways involved, however the true mediators remain to be elucidated. Herein, we attempt to describe the immunologic response to systemic trauma in the context of the Danger model.

Data sources: A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma.

Conclusions: Our knowledge of Danger signals in relation to traumatic injury is still limited. Danger/alarmin signals are the most proximal molecules in the immune response that have many possibilities for effector function in the innate and acquired immune systems. Having a full understanding of these molecules and their pathways would give us the ability to intervene at such an early stage and may prove to be more effective in blunting the post-injury inflammatory response unlike previously failed cytokine experiments.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Immunologic Response to Severe Trauma.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Mechanism of HMGB1 (DAMP) Release and Immune Cell Activation.

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