Objectives: To investigate the β-lactamase background of ertapenem non-susceptible isolates for the presence of the most commonly detected carbapenemase genes, bla(KPC), bla(OXA-48) and bla(VIM), and the newly described bla(NDM-1).
Methods: Two hundred and thirty-five ertapenem-non-susceptible (MIC ≥ 0.5 mg/L) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the worldwide Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) 2009 programme were screened using a multiplex PCR for the presence of bla(KPC), bla(OXA-48), bla(VIM) and bla(NDM-1) genes. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes (bla(ESBL) and bla(AmpC)) were identified using the Check-MDR CT101 microarray. DNA sequencing was performed to identify the bla(ESBL), bla(KPC) and bla(NDM-1) genes. Molecular typing was also performed to genetically characterize these isolates.
Results: Sixty-six isolates (28%) had a carbapenemase gene, with bla(NDM-1) identified in 33 isolates including 2 isolates carrying both bla(NDM-1) and bla(OXA-48); other carbapenemase genes found included bla(KPC) (n = 23), bla(VIM) (n = 7) and bla(OXA-48) (n = 3). All bla(NDM-1)-carrying isolates were from patients in India and comprised five different species. With the exception of one isolate carrying only bla(NDM-1), all bla(NDM-1) carbapenemase-possessing isolates carried additional β-lactamases in various combinations: bla(ESBL) and bla(AmpC) (n = 18); bla(ESBL) (n = 10); bla(ESBL), bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-48) (n = 2); and bla(AmpC) (n = 2). Except for bla(OXA-48)-carrying isolates, novel multilocus sequence types or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns were observed along with clonal dissemination within and among sites.
Conclusions: A range of carbapenemase genes, associated with diverse ESBLs and/or AmpC backgrounds, were found among Enterobacteriaceae isolated during the study. Many of these ertapenem non-susceptible strains were clonally related and carried various combinations of β-lactamases.