In our systematic literature search, we included studies involving patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) and outcome measures of work participation. Methodological quality was assessed using 11 criteria; a qualitative data analysis was performed. Fifty-three full-text articles were selected out of 1861 abstracts; finally, data were extracted from 14 articles. Design, populations, definitions, and measurements in the studies showed large variations; work outcomes were often only secondary objectives. The outcomes were summarized as showing a mild negative effect of OA on work participation. Many patients had paid work and managed to stay at work despite limitations. However, research on the effect of OA on work participation is scarce and the methodological quality is often insufficient. The longitudinal course of work participation in individuals with OA has not been described completely.