Bacterial protein toxins that modify host regulatory GTPases

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Jun 16;9(7):487-98. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2592.


Many bacterial pathogens produce protein toxins to outmanoeuvre the immune system of the host. Some of these proteins target regulatory GTPases such as those belonging to the RHO family, which control the actin cytoskeleton of the host cell. In this Review, I discuss a diversity of mechanisms that are used by bacterial effectors and toxins to modulate the activity of host GTPases, with a focus on covalent modifications such as ADP-ribosylation, glucosylation, adenylylation, proteolysis, deamidation and transglutamination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Actins / metabolism
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Bacterial Toxins / pharmacology*
  • Cytoskeleton / metabolism
  • Eukaryotic Cells / microbiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / drug effects*
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism


  • Actins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins