Prevalence and risk indicators of temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms in a pediatric population with spastic cerebral palsy

J Clin Pediatr Dent. Spring 2011;35(3):259-63. doi: 10.17796/jcpd.35.3.738t75v74l1m1p22.


Objective: To determine risk indicators for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children with cerebral palsy (n = 60) and control subjects (n = 60).

Study design: The subjects were assessed by means of questionnaire and clinical exam: 1) signs and symptoms of TMD; 2) malocclusions [Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI)]; 3) harmful habits; and 4) bio-psychosocial characteristics. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests (p < or = 0.05) and multivariate logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). Variables that achieved a p-value < or = 0.20 were used as potential predictors of signs and symptoms of TMD and applied as co-variables in the multivariate analysis.

Results: The prevalence of at least one sign and/or symptom of TMD in the present sample was 1.7% (n = 1) among the individuals in the control group and 13.3% (n = 8) among the individuals with cerebral palsy. The presence of cerebral palsy (Odds Ratio: 9.08; p = 0.041), male gender (OR: 6.21; p = 0.027), severity of the malocclusion (OR: 4.75; p = 0.031), mouth breathing (OR: 5.40; p = 0.022) and mixed dentition (OR: 4.73; p = 0.035) were identified as risk indicators for signs and symptoms of TMD.

Conclusions: It was concluded that children with cerebral palsy had a significantly greater chance of developing signs and symptoms of TMD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cerebral Palsy / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / epidemiology*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / diagnosis
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / epidemiology*