Nuclear bodies including nucleoli, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, Polycomb bodies, and paraspeckles are membraneless subnuclear organelles. They are present at steady-state and dynamically respond to basic physiological processes as well as to various forms of stress, altered metabolic conditions and alterations in cellular signaling. The formation of a specific nuclear body has been suggested to follow a stochastic or ordered assembly model. In addition, a seeding mechanism has been proposed to assemble, maintain, and regulate particular nuclear bodies. In coordination with noncoding RNAs, chromatin modifiers and other machineries, various nuclear bodies have been shown to sequester and modify proteins, process RNAs and assemble ribonucleoprotein complexes, as well as epigenetically regulate gene expression. Understanding the functional relationships between the 3D organization of the genome and nuclear bodies is essential to fully uncover the regulation of gene expression and its implications for human disease.
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