Oat bran lowers serum lipid concentrations in healthy and hyperlipidemic subjects. To determine the effects of a ready-to-eat oat-bran cereal on lipid concentrations, we fed control (corn flakes) and oat-bran cereal diets for 2 wk to 12 men with undesirably high serum total-cholesterol concentrations. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two diets upon admission to the metabolic ward. After completing the first diet, subjects completed 2 wk on the alternate diet. Intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and cholesterol were virtually identical on the two diets. The oat-bran cereal provided 25 g oat bran/d. The oat-bran cereal diet compared with the corn flakes diet lowered serum total-cholesterol and serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly by 5.4% (p less than 0.05) and 8.5% (p less than 0.025), respectively. Final body weights on each of the diets were similar. Ready-to-eat oat-bran cereal provides a practical means to incorporate soluble fiber into the diet to lower serum cholesterol.