Background: Delamanid (OPC-67683) is a novel mycolic acid biosynthesis inhibitor active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a low minimum inhibitory concentration.
Methods: Forty-eight patients with smear-positive tuberculosis (63% male; 54.7 ± 9.9 kg; 30.7 ± 10.8 years) were randomly assigned to receive delamanid 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg daily for 14 days. Colony forming units (cfu) of M. tuberculosis were counted on agar plates from overnight sputum collections to calculate early bactericidal activity (EBA), defined as fall in log(10) cfu/ml sputum/day.
Results: The EBA of delamanid was monophasic and not significantly different between dosages; however, more patients receiving 200 mg (70%) and 300 mg (80%) experienced a response of ≥0.9 log(10) cfu/ml sputum decline over 14 days than those receiving 100 mg (45%) and 400 mg (27%). The average EBA of all dosages combined (0.040 ± 0.056 log(10) cfu/ml sputum/day) was significant from day 2 onward. Delamanid exposure was less than dosage-proportional, reaching a plateau at 300 mg, likely due to dose-limited absorption. Moderate but significant correlation was found between C(max) and EBA, indicating exposure dependence. Delamanid was well tolerated without significant toxicity.
Conclusions: Delamanid at all dosages was safe, well tolerated and demonstrated significant exposure-dependent EBA over 14 days, supporting further investigation of its pharmacokinetics and anti-tuberculosis activity.