Purpose: We assessed risk factors for end stage renal disease in patients with Wilms tumor without known WT1 related syndromes. We hypothesized that patients with characteristics suggestive of a WT1 etiology (early onset, stromal predominant histology, intralobar nephrogenic rests) would have a higher risk of end stage renal disease due to chronic renal failure. We predicted a high risk of end stage renal disease due to progressive bilateral Wilms tumor in patients with metachronous bilateral disease.
Materials and methods: End stage renal disease was ascertained in 100 of 7,950 nonsyndromic patients enrolled in a National Wilms Tumor Study during 1969 to 2002. Risk factors were evaluated with cumulative incidence curves and proportional hazard regressions.
Results: The cumulative incidence of end stage renal disease due to chronic renal failure 20 years after Wilms tumor diagnosis was 0.7%. For end stage renal disease due to progressive bilateral Wilms tumor the incidence was 4.0% at 3 years after diagnosis in patients with synchronous bilateral Wilms tumor and 19.3% in those with metachronous bilateral Wilms tumor. For end stage renal disease due to chronic renal failure stromal predominant histology had a HR of 6.4 relative to mixed (95% CI 3.4, 11.9; p<0.001), intralobar rests had a HR of 5.9 relative to no rests (95% CI 2.0, 17.3; p=0.001), and Wilms tumor diagnosis at less than 24 months had a HR of 1.7 relative to 24 to 48 months and 2.8 relative to greater than 48 months (p=0.003 for trend).
Conclusions: Metachronous bilateral Wilms tumor is associated with high rates of end stage renal disease due to surgery for progressive Wilms tumor. Characteristics associated with a WT1 etiology markedly increased the risk of end stage renal disease due to chronic renal failure despite the low risk in non-WT1 syndromic cases overall.
Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.