Can natural antibodies to VIP or VIP-like HIV-1 glycoprotein facilitate prevention and supportive treatment of breast cancer?

Med Hypotheses. 2011 Sep;77(3):404-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.05.030. Epub 2011 Jun 17.


Objectives: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer is remarkably higher in HIV-infected than in the general population. In contrast, breast cancer risk is significantly reduced in the HIV-infected population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of suppression of breast cancer in the HIV-infected population may serve as a basis for development of a new platform for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Hypothesis: Various evidences indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays an important role in growth, and differentiation of breast cancer. We previously showed (i) that natural antibodies recognizing VIP and the gp120-derived peptide NTM significantly contribute to the control of HIV disease progression by suppression of VIP-like activity of HIV-1 gp120 and (ii) that physical exercise stimulates production of these natural antibodies. These findings suggest that natural anti-VIP/NTM antibodies could contribute to a decrease of breast cancer in the HIV-infected population by suppression of VIP, which may play a pro/oncogenic function. Aerobic exercise which stimulates production of anti-VIP/NTM antibodies could be used as prevention and supportive treatment of breast cancer.

Impact: Immunotherapy based on natural anti-VIP/NTM antibodies could serve as an effective adjunct therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Similarly, aerobic exercise, which stimulates production of these antibodies, should be considered as an inexpensive and safe preventive and supportive breast cancer therapy. Natural anti-VIP/NTM antibodies also represent promising prognostic marker for breast cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications*
  • Antibodies, Viral / immunology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / complications
  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Female
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide