Myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct;118(10):1989-1994.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.03.012.


Objective: To determine the association between myopia and open-angle glaucoma.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Participants: Thirteen studies involving 48 161 individuals.

Methods: Articles published between 1994 and 2010 were identified in PubMed, Embase, and reference lists. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random effects model.

Main outcome measures: Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma.

Results: Data from 11 population-based cross-sectional studies were included in the main analyses. The pooled OR of the association between myopia and glaucoma based on 11 risk estimates was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.54-2.38). On the basis of 7 risk estimates, the pooled ORs of the associations between low myopia (myopia up to -3 D) and glaucoma and between high myopia (≤-3 D myopic) and glaucoma were 1.65 (1.26-2.17) and 2.46 (1.93-3.15), respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity among studies that reported an association between any myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=53%) and low myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=29%), but not for high myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=0%). After omitting studies that contributed significantly to the heterogeneity, the pooled ORs were 1.88 (1.60-2.20) for any myopia and glaucoma and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) for low myopia and glaucoma.

Conclusions: Individuals with myopia have an increased risk of developing open-angle glaucoma.

Financial disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / epidemiology
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Myopia / complications*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors