Objective: To determine the association between myopia and open-angle glaucoma.
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Participants: Thirteen studies involving 48 161 individuals.
Methods: Articles published between 1994 and 2010 were identified in PubMed, Embase, and reference lists. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random effects model.
Main outcome measures: Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma.
Results: Data from 11 population-based cross-sectional studies were included in the main analyses. The pooled OR of the association between myopia and glaucoma based on 11 risk estimates was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.54-2.38). On the basis of 7 risk estimates, the pooled ORs of the associations between low myopia (myopia up to -3 D) and glaucoma and between high myopia (≤-3 D myopic) and glaucoma were 1.65 (1.26-2.17) and 2.46 (1.93-3.15), respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity among studies that reported an association between any myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=53%) and low myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=29%), but not for high myopia and glaucoma (I(2)=0%). After omitting studies that contributed significantly to the heterogeneity, the pooled ORs were 1.88 (1.60-2.20) for any myopia and glaucoma and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) for low myopia and glaucoma.
Conclusions: Individuals with myopia have an increased risk of developing open-angle glaucoma.
Financial disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.