Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Heat Shock Transcription

Sign Transduct Insights. 2010;2:13-24. doi: 10.4137/STI.S3994.


Heat shock proteins (HSP) are essential for intracellular protein folding during stress and protect cells from denaturation and aggregation cascades that can lead to cell death. HSP genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) that is activated by stress and binds to heat shock elements in HSP genes. The activation of HSF1 during heat shock involves conversion from an inert monomer to a DNA binding trimer through a series of intramolecular folding rearrangements. However, the trigger for HSF1 at the molecular level is unclear and hypotheses for this process include reversal of feedback inhibition of HSF1 by molecular chaperones and heat-induced binding to large non-coding RNAs. Heat shock also causes a profound modulation in cell signaling pathways that lead to protein kinase activation and phosphorylation of HSF1 at a number of regulatory serine residues. HSP genes themselves exist in an accessible chromatin conformation already bound to RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II is paused on HSP promoters after transcribing a short RNA sequence proximal to the promoter. Activation by heat shock involves HSF1 binding to the promoter and release of the paused RNA polymerase II followed by further rounds of transcriptional initiation and elongation. HSF1 is thus involved in both initiation and elongation of HSP RNA transcripts. Recent studies indicate important roles for histone modifications on HSP genes during heat shock. Histone modification occurs rapidly after stress and may be involved in promoting nucleosome remodeling on HSP promoters and in the open reading frames of HSP genes. Understanding these processes may be key to evaluating mechanisms of deregulated HSP expression that plays a key role in neurodegeneration and cancer.