We reviewed the neuro-ophthalmic findings in 177 subjects with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex who underwent an eye examination in one center from January 1984 to May 1989. The findings included ocular motor nerve palsies (five cases), papilledema (two cases), cytomegalovirus optic neuritis (two cases), cortical blindness (one case), conjugate gaze palsy (one case), and altitudinal visual field defect (one case). These findings were attributed to central nervous system toxoplasmosis (four cases) or lymphoma (one case), cryptococcal meningitis (two cases), systemic cytomegalovirus infections (two cases), and herpes simplex encephalitis (one case). Of 177 patients, 61 patients were tested for syphilis. Twenty-six patients had positive rapid plasma reagin titers, and 28 had positive fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed tests. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals need to be screened routinely for syphilis.