We report the detection of the proteins lysozyme and cytochrome c as well as the live bacterial cells of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in aqueous solutions with sensitivities order(s) of magnitude higher than those previously reported. Two highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensors using optical fibers have been employed for such label-free macromolecule detections. The first sensor is based on a tip-coated multimode fiber (TCMMF) with a double-substrate "sandwich" structure, and a detection limit of 0.2 μg/mL is achieved in protein detections. The second sensor is based on a liquid core photonic crystal fiber (LCPCF) with a better confinement of light inside the fiber core, and a detection limit of 10(6) cells/mL is achieved for the bacteria detection. Both SERS biosensors show great potential for highly sensitive and molecule-specific detection and identification of biomolecules.