Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: a review for a multimodal approach in clinical practice

Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2011 May;4(3):139-68. doi: 10.1177/1756285611403646.


As more investigations into factors affecting the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are undertaken, it is becoming increasingly apparent that certain comorbidities and associated symptoms commonly found in these patients differ in incidence, pathophysiology and other factors compared with the general population. Many of these MS-related symptoms are frequently ignored in assessments of disease status and are often not considered to be associated with the disease. Research into how such comorbidities and symptoms can be diagnosed and treated within the MS population is lacking. This information gap adds further complexity to disease management and represents an unmet need in MS, particularly as early recognition and treatment of these conditions can improve patient outcomes. In this manuscript, we sought to review the literature on the comorbidities and symptoms of MS and to summarize the evidence for treatments that have been or may be used to alleviate them.

Keywords: clinical medicine; comorbidity; multiple sclerosis; neurology; review; signs and symptoms; therapy.