Tuberculosis infection is of global public health significance, with millions of incident cases each year. Many cases, particularly in low-prevalence settings, result from the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); potentially acquired years prior to active disease. Up to one-third of the world's population has been infected with LTBI, and so may be at risk for future active TB disease. A variety of antituberculosis medications and treatment regimens have now been evaluated in the management of LTBI, with the aim of eradicating tuberculosis bacilli and reducing the likelihood of subsequent reactivation disease. This article reviews LTBI therapies and their use in clinical contexts, and considers future directions for individual and population-based strategies in LTBI management.
Keywords: interferon-gamma release assay; isoniazid; latent tuberculosis; rifampicin; tuberculin skin test; tuberculosis.