We analyzed the relatively poorly understood IFT-dynein (class DYNC2)-driven retrograde IFT pathway in C. elegans cilia, which yielded results that are surprising in the context of current models of IFT. Assays of C. elegans dynein gene expression and intraflagellar transport (IFT) suggest that conventional IFT-dynein contains essential heavy (CHE-3), light-intermediate (XBX-1), plus three light polypeptide chains that participate in IFT, but no "essential" intermediate chain. IFT assays of XBX-1::YFP suggest that IFT-dynein is transported as cargo to the distal tip of the cilium by kinesin-2 motors, but independent of the IFT-particle/BBSome complexes. Finally, we were surprised to find that the subset of cilia present on the OLQ (outer labial quadrant) neurons assemble independently of conventional "CHE-3" IFT-dynein, implying that there is a second IFT-dynein acting in these cilia. We have found a novel gene encoding a dynein heavy chain, DHC-3, and two light chains, in OLQ neurons, which could constitute an IFT-dynein complex in OLQ neuronal cilia. Our results underscore several surprising features of retrograde IFT that require clarification.