Hypothalamic control of energy and glucose metabolism

Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2011 Sep;12(3):219-33. doi: 10.1007/s11154-011-9189-x.


The central nervous system (CNS), generally accepted to regulate energy homeostasis, has been implicated in the metabolic perturbations that either cause or are associated with obesity. Normally, the CNS receives hormonal, metabolic, and neuronal input to assure adequate energy levels and maintain stable energy homeostasis. Recent evidence also supports that the CNS uses these same inputs to regulate glucose homeostasis and this aspect of CNS regulation also becomes impaired in the face of dietary-induced obesity. This review focuses on the literature surrounding hypothalamic regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis and discusses how dysregulation of this system may contribute to obesity and T2DM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus / metabolism*
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Obesity / metabolism*


  • Insulin
  • Glucose