Violation of reproductive function in patients with celiac disease can manifest as delayed puberty, infertility, amenorrhea, premature menopause, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency and nature of reproductive function violation in patients with CD in the Russian Federation.
Materials and methods: The study included 132 women (average age 38,5 +/- 1,17 years) with CD observed in CSRIG in the period from 2000 to 2010. Comparison group consisted 105 women (average age 38,7 +/- 1,6 years) with predominantly functional bowel disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation, functional bloating, inert colon). Were took into account information regarding obstetric history, physical and laboratory signs of malabsorption syndrome (MS) study of antibodies to alpha-gliadin immunoglobulin (IG) A class (AGA) and tissue transglutaminase (AtTG).
Results: The average age of onset of menses was 14,3 +/- 1,4 years, and in the control group - 13,0 +/- 1,3 years (p > 0.05), half of patients with C (43.9%) had menstruation begun at age 15 years and older, while 7.6% of the women--aged 17 and older. In the comparison group menses beginning after 15 years was only at 13.3% of women. In 61.3% of patients with CD was irregular menstrual cycle while in the comparison group such violations were noted in 13.3% (p < 0.001). Prolonged periods of amenorrhea we observed in women with newly diagnosed GC 3 times more likely than the comparison group: 43.9% and 11.4% respectively (p < 0.01). They also had nearly 3 times more likely to occur spontaneous miscarriage: at 46.9% and 14.3% respectively (p < 0.01). The frequency of dead children birth was about the same: 2.3% and 1.9% respectively (p > 0.05). The frequency of reproductive disorders increased with the growth of the severity of MS. In 43% of women after 6-8 months of strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) had disappeared amenorrhea and there were regular menses. Three women of childbearing age, strictly abided the GFD and had a history of repeated spontaneous abortion during the year managed to get pregnant and give birth to healthy full-term baby.
Conclusions: Reproductive disorders in women with celiac disease are significantly more likely than at women with functional bowel disease. One of the reasons of reproductive disorders in patients with CD can be malabsorption of necessary nutrients in the small intestine. The presence of reproductive disorders should be considered as a risk factor for celiac disease, so these women should be screened for celiac disease.