Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies

Nano Lett. 2011 Aug 10;11(8):3190-6. doi: 10.1021/nl201432g. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Abstract

We present a Raman study of Ar(+)-bombarded graphene samples with increasing ion doses. This allows us to have a controlled, increasing, amount of defects. We find that the ratio between the D and G peak intensities, for a given defect density, strongly depends on the laser excitation energy. We quantify this effect and present a simple equation for the determination of the point defect density in graphene via Raman spectroscopy for any visible excitation energy. We note that, for all excitations, the D to G intensity ratio reaches a maximum for an interdefect distance ∼3 nm. Thus, a given ratio could correspond to two different defect densities, above or below the maximum. The analysis of the G peak width and its dispersion with excitation energy solves this ambiguity.