Dehiscence and fenestration in skeletal Class I, II, and III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography

Angle Orthod. 2012 Jan;82(1):67-74. doi: 10.2319/040811-250.1. Epub 2011 Jun 22.


Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the presence of dehiscence and fenestration was not different among patients with skeletal Class I, II, and III malocclusions.

Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 123 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with an iCAT scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, Pa). Patients with normal vertical patterns were classified according to dental malocclusion and ANB angle. Class I comprised 41 patients-21 girls and 20 boys (mean age, 22.4 ± 4.5 years); Class II comprised 42 patients-22 girls and 20 boys (mean age, 21.5 ± 4.2 years); and Class III comprised 40 subjects-22 girls and 18 boys (mean age, 22.1 ± 4.5 years). A total of 3444 teeth were evaluated. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical comparisons at the P < .05 level.

Results: Statistical analysis indicated that the Class II group had a greater prevalence of fenestration than the other groups (P < .001). No difference was found in the prevalence of dehiscence among the three groups. Although fenestration had greater prevalence in the maxilla, more dehiscence was found in the mandible for all groups. In Class I, alveolar defects (dehiscence, fenestration) were matched relatively in both jaws. Furthermore, Class II and Class III subjects had more alveolar defects (41.11% and 45.02%, respectively) in the mandible. Dehiscences were seen with greater frequency in the mandibular incisors of all groups.

Conclusion: The null hypothesis was rejected. Significant differences in the presence of fenestration were found among subjects with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions. Fenestrations had greater prevalence in the maxilla, but more dehiscences were found in the mandible.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / diagnostic imaging
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / pathology*
  • Alveolar Process / diagnostic imaging
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cephalometry
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  • Female
  • Gingival Recession / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / classification
  • Malocclusion / complications*
  • Malocclusion / pathology
  • Malocclusion / therapy
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / adverse effects*
  • Tooth Root / diagnostic imaging
  • Young Adult