The cytostatic effects of essential fatty acid metabolic intermediates and of some prostaglandins and leukotrienes in vitro have been extensively documented. The essential fatty acids (EFAs) exhibit no side-effects when taken as a dietary supplement, even in large doses. Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) is a fatal disease in our area as it is always multifocal in nature. In vitro studies have shown a cytostatic effect of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on primary liver cancer cells. In a double-blind placebo controlled trial, using Evening Primrose Oil (as a source of GLA) as a dietary supplement in PLC patients, no statistically significant effect was observed on survival time or liver size. There was however a statistical significant beneficial effect on Gamma Glutamyl transferase values as a measure of liver function. No side-effects were observed. The large size of tumour and the low doses of GLA used in this trial probably explain the lack of significant effect on survival times.