Human hemato-lymphoid-system mice hold great promise for modeling and studying important human diseases in vivo, and to enable vaccine testing. Until now, several major limitations have restricted the utility of human hemato-lymphoid-system mice in translational research. Recently, however, significant advances have been made in improving these mice, based on the delivery of human cytokines to create a better environment for human cells in the mouse host. In this review, we discuss the various approaches with a particular focus on improving human hemato-lymphoid-system mice by human cytokine knock-in gene replacement.
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