Effects of encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrates on oxidative status in heavy smokers

J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Feb;30(1):49-56. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2011.10719943.


Objective: Long-term cigarette smoking has negative effects on oxidative status, promoting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and formation of lipid peroxides. We evaluated the effects of 2 different encapsulated formulas, consisting primarily of mixed juice powder concentrate, on oxidative status compared with placebo.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 101 apparently healthy heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/d, duration >10 years; median age 47 years, range 41-57 years; 54 M) before and after 3 months' supplementation. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, well matched for sex and age: (1) placebo; (2) fruit/vegetable (FV); and (3) fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Analysis of oxidative status was performed on 75 (46 M) compliant subjects (>95% of assigned capsules). Changes in lipid panel parameters, oxidative-INDEX (Oxy-I, calculated on the basis of serum hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity measured by spectrophotometric methods), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method), and malondialdehyde (MDA; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method) in free (fMDA), bound (bMDA), and total (tMDA = fMDA + bMDA) forms are reported. Statistical analysis was performed with R statistical software.

Results: After supplementation, compared with placebo, both FV and FVB groups showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (p < 0.05), ox-LDL (p = 0.03), and fMDA levels (p = 0.004) accompanied by a slight increase in bMDA concentrations, possibly as the result of fMDA conjugation. Moreover, a significant decrease in Oxy-I was found in both active groups compared with placebo (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Intervention with both nutraceutical formulations resulted in improvement in some oxidative alterations attributed to long-term cigarette smoking.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholesterol / blood*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Preparations / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Edible*
  • Smoking / blood*
  • Vegetables


  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Plant Preparations
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Cholesterol