Objective: Long-term cigarette smoking has negative effects on oxidative status, promoting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and formation of lipid peroxides. We evaluated the effects of 2 different encapsulated formulas, consisting primarily of mixed juice powder concentrate, on oxidative status compared with placebo.
Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 101 apparently healthy heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/d, duration >10 years; median age 47 years, range 41-57 years; 54 M) before and after 3 months' supplementation. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, well matched for sex and age: (1) placebo; (2) fruit/vegetable (FV); and (3) fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Analysis of oxidative status was performed on 75 (46 M) compliant subjects (>95% of assigned capsules). Changes in lipid panel parameters, oxidative-INDEX (Oxy-I, calculated on the basis of serum hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity measured by spectrophotometric methods), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method), and malondialdehyde (MDA; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method) in free (fMDA), bound (bMDA), and total (tMDA = fMDA + bMDA) forms are reported. Statistical analysis was performed with R statistical software.
Results: After supplementation, compared with placebo, both FV and FVB groups showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (p < 0.05), ox-LDL (p = 0.03), and fMDA levels (p = 0.004) accompanied by a slight increase in bMDA concentrations, possibly as the result of fMDA conjugation. Moreover, a significant decrease in Oxy-I was found in both active groups compared with placebo (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Intervention with both nutraceutical formulations resulted in improvement in some oxidative alterations attributed to long-term cigarette smoking.