Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 25 (7), 539-54

Long-term Outcomes With Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status of Knowledge

Affiliations
Review

Long-term Outcomes With Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status of Knowledge

Yu-Shu Huang et al. CNS Drugs.

Erratum in

  • CNS Drugs. 2011 Nov 1;25(11):932. Dosage error in article text

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurobehavioural disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, is a chronic disorder and often persists into adulthood. CNS stimulants have been the most well known treatment for ADHD for several decades due to their high effectiveness, good safety profiles and relatively minor adverse effects. Non-stimulant agents, including atomoxetine, extended-release guanfacine and extended-release clonidine (US FDA approved), and several non-FDA-approved agents, such as bupropion and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), were recently proven to be effective alternatives to the stimulants in several open-label and placebo-controlled trials. However, most medication trials for ADHD have been short term and thus have not provided information on the long-term outcomes of ADHD treatment. Since the medical treatment of many children with ADHD, especially those with more severe symptoms or co-morbid disorders, has to be continued for several years, recent studies have shifted their focus from the acute effectiveness of stimulants or non-stimulant drugs to the long-term outcomes of medications for ADHD. Evidence has shown that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for 24-month treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 11 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006 Jul;48(7):616-21 - PubMed
    1. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;56(4):330-6 - PubMed
    1. MedGenMed. 2006 Oct 05;8(4):4 - PubMed
    1. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Apr;30(2):145-51 - PubMed
    1. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Feb;27(1):1-10 - PubMed

MeSH terms

Feedback