Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound, has been indicated to possess an insulin-like property in diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the renoprotective effects of RSV and delineate its underlying mechanism in early-stage DN.
Methods: The protective effects of RSV on DN were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Results: The plasma glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were significantly elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. RSV treatment markedly ameliorated hyperglycemia and renal dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The diabetes-induced superoxide anion and protein carbonyl levels were also significantly attenuated in RSV-treated diabetic kidney. The AMPK protein phosphorylation and expression levels were remarkably reduced in diabetic renal tissues. In contrast, RSV treatment significantly rescued the AMPK protein expression and phosphorylation compared to non-treated diabetic group. Additionally, hyperglycemia markedly enhanced renal production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. RSV reduced IL-1β but increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the diabetic kidneys.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that RSV protects against oxidative stress, exhibits concurrent proinflammation and anti-inflammation, and up-regulates AMPK expression and activation, which may contribute to its beneficial effects on the early stage of DN.