Background: The causes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are multifactorial. Overdistension of the lung (volutrauma) is considered an important contribution. As an alternative to traditional pressure-limited ventilation (PLV), modern neonatal ventilators offer modes which can target a set tidal volume.
Objectives: To determine whether volume-targeted neonatal ventilation, compared with PLV, reduces death or BPD.
Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using the methodology of the Neonatal Review Group of the Cochrane Collaboration. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, and data for prespecified outcomes were combined where appropriate using the fixed effects model.
Results: Nine trials were eligible. Volume-targeted ventilation resulted in a reduction in: the combined outcome of death or BPD [typical relative risk, RR, 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.93), numbers needed to treat, NNT, 8 (95% CI 5-33)], the incidence of pneumothorax [typical RR 0.46 (95% CI 0.25-0.84), NNT 17 (95% CI 10-100)], days of ventilation [weighted mean difference 0.8 days (log-transformed data, p = 0.05)], hypocarbia (pCO(2) <35 mm Hg/4.7 kPa); [typical RR 0.56 (95% CI 0.33-0.96), NNT 4 (95% CI 2-25)], and the combined outcome of periventricular leukomalacia or grade 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage [typical RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.28-0.84), NNT 11 (95% CI 7-50)].
Conclusions: Compared with PLV, infants ventilated using volume-targeted ventilation had reduced death/BPD, duration of ventilation, pneumothoraces, hypocarbia and periventricular leukomalacia/severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Further studies are needed to assess neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.