The clinical syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) in children is a distinct, yet somewhat overlapping disorder with the condition that occurs in adults, such that the clinical manifestations, polysomnographic findings, diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches need to be considered in an age-specific manner. Childhood OSAS has now become widely recognized as a frequent disorder and as a major public health problem. Pediatric OSAS, particularly when obesity is concurrently present, is associated with substantial end-organ morbidities and increased healthcare utilization. Although adenotonsillectomy (T&A) remains the first line of treatment, evidence in recent years suggests that the outcomes of this surgical procedure may not be as favorable as expected, such that post-T&A polysomnographic evaluation may be needed, especially in high-risk patient groups. In addition, incorporation of nonsurgical approaches for milder forms of the disorder and for residual OSAS after T&A is now being investigated.