An indirect immunofluorescence assay for serum IgG and IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 was established using recombinant B19 viral antigen, the capsid protein VP1, which had been produced in a baculovirus expression system. This protein gives a strong and characteristic signal in the immunofluorescence assay, making it a suitable candidate for this test system. The test results showed a good correlation with results obtained with a solid-phase capture radioimmunoassay (Cohen et al., 1983). 76% of sera from a random selection of blood donors were positive for B19 IgG which agrees with previous findings. The course of the IgM and IgG antibody response to B19 infection could be followed with the immunofluorescence assay by determining the titers of series of sera taken after a recent B19 infection. Investigation of 24 sera containing rubella-specific IgM showed no cross-reactivity with the recombinant B19 VP1 used in this test system. The test described here has the advantage of being based on a renewable source of antigen and will be further evaluated for routine diagnostic use in comparison with radioimmunoassay.