CKD in Hispanics: Baseline characteristics from the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Aug;58(2):214-27. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.05.010. Epub 2011 Jun 25.


Background: Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants.

Study design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting & participants: Participants were aged 21-74 years with CKD using age-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008, whereas CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at 7 clinical centers in 2003-2007.

Factor: Race/ethnicity.

Outcomes: Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and CKD-associated complications.

Measurements: Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols.

Results: Of H-CRIC/CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1,650 were non-Hispanic black, and 1,638 were non-Hispanic white. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (P < 0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks (51%) and whites (40%; P < 0.01). Blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg was more common in Hispanics (62%) than blacks (57%) and whites (35%; P < 0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (P < 0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs among the high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg. Mean eGFR was lower in Hispanics (39.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) than in blacks (43.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and whites (46.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), whereas median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (protein excretion, 0.72 g/d) than in blacks (0.24 g/d) and whites (0.12 g/d; P < 0.01).

Limitations: Generalizability; observed associations limited by residual bias and confounding.

Conclusions: Hispanics with CKD in the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies are disproportionately burdened with lower socioeconomic status, more frequent diabetes mellitus, less ACE-inhibitor/ARB use, worse blood pressure control, and more severe CKD and associated complications than their non-Hispanic counterparts.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult

Grant support