Twenty-four hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol a during high-dietary exposure

Toxicol Sci. 2011 Sep;123(1):48-57. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr160. Epub 2011 Jun 24.


By virtue of its binding to steroid hormone receptors, bisphenol A (BPA, the unconjugated bioactive monomer) is hypothesized to be estrogenic when present in sufficient quantities in the body, raising concerns that widespread exposure to BPA may impact human health. To better understand the internal exposure of adult humans to BPA and the relationship between the serum and urinary pharmacokinetics of BPA, a clinical exposure study was conducted. Blood and urine samples were collected approximately hourly over a 24-h period from 20 adult volunteers who ingested 100% of one of three specified meals comprising standard grocery store food items for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The volunteers' average consumption of BPA, estimated from the urinary excretion of total BPA ((TOT)BPA = conjugated BPA + BPA), was 0.27 μg/kg body weight (range, 0.03-0.86), 21% greater than the 95th percentile of aggregate exposure in the adult U.S. population. A serum time course of (TOT)BPA was observable only in individuals with exposures 1.3-3.9 times higher than the 95th percentile of aggregate U.S. exposure. The (TOT)BPA urine concentration T(max) was 2.75 h (range, 0.75-5.75 h) post-meal, lagging the serum concentration T(max) by ∼1 h. Serum (TOT)BPA area under the curve per unit BPA exposure was between 21.5 and 79.0 nM•h•kg/μg BPA. Serum (TOT)BPA concentrations ranged from less than or equal to limit of detection (LOD, 1.3 nM) to 5.7 nM and were, on average, 42 times lower than urine concentrations. During these high dietary exposures, (TOT)BPA concentrations in serum were undetectable in 83% of the 320 samples collected and BPA concentrations were determined to be less than or equal to LOD in all samples.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Consumer Product Safety
  • Diet
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Environmental Pollutants / blood
  • Environmental Pollutants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Environmental Pollutants / urine
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / blood
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics*
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / urine
  • Female
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Limit of Detection
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenols / blood
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics*
  • Phenols / urine
  • Young Adult


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A