In vivo evidence that retinal bipolar cells generate spikes modulated by light

Nat Neurosci. 2011 Jun 26;14(8):951-2. doi: 10.1038/nn.2841.


Retinal bipolar cells have been assumed to generate purely graded responses to light. To test this idea we imaged the presynaptic calcium transient in live zebrafish. We found that ON, OFF, transient and sustained bipolar cells are all capable of generating fast 'all-or-none' calcium transients modulated by visual stimulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Light*
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Photic Stimulation / methods
  • Presynaptic Terminals / physiology
  • Retina / cytology*
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells / classification
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells / physiology*
  • Zebrafish


  • Calcium