MMP-2/MMP-9 plasma level and brain expression in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-associated hemorrhagic stroke

Brain Pathol. 2012 Mar;22(2):133-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2011.00512.x. Epub 2011 Sep 15.


Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is one of the main causes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in blood-brain barrier disruption and ICH pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the levels MMP-2 and MMP-9 in plasma and their brain expression in CAA-associated hemorrhagic stroke. Although MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasma levels did not differ among patients and controls, their brain expression was increased in perihematoma areas of CAA-related hemorrhagic strokes compared with contralateral areas and nonhemorrhagic brains. In addition, MMP-2 reactivity was found in β-amyloid (Aβ)-damaged vessels located far from the acute ICH and in chronic microbleeds. MMP-2 expression was associated to endothelial cells, histiocytes and reactive astrocytes, whereas MMP-9 expression was restricted to inflammatory cells. In summary, MMP-2 expression within and around Aβ-compromised vessels might contribute to the vasculature fatal fate, triggering an eventual bleeding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / blood
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / enzymology*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / blood
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / enzymology*
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / pathology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / blood
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / enzymology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / enzymology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Stroke / blood
  • Stroke / enzymology*
  • Stroke / pathology


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • MMP2 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9