Background: Glenoid bone defect is frequently associated with anterior shoulder instability and is considered one of the major causes of recurrence of instability after shoulder stabilization.
Hypothesis: Some risk factors are significantly associated with the presence, size, and type of glenoid bone defect.
Study design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.
Methods: One hundred sixty-one patients affected by anterior shoulder instability underwent morphologic evaluation of the glenoid by computed tomography scans to assess the presence, size, and type of glenoid bone defect (erosion or bony Bankart lesion). Bone loss greater than 20% of the area of the inferior glenoid was considered "critical" bone defect (at risk of recurrence). Outcomes were correlated with the following predictors: age, gender, arm dominance, frequency of dislocation, age at first dislocation, timing from first dislocation, number of dislocations, cause of first dislocation, generalized ligamentous laxity, type of sport, and manual work.
Results: Glenoid bone defect was observed in 72% of the cases. Presence of the defect was significantly associated with recurrence of dislocation compared with a single episode of dislocation, increasing number of dislocations, male gender, and type of sport. Size of the defect was significantly associated with recurrent dislocation, increasing number of dislocations, timing from first dislocation, and manual work. Presence of a critical defect was significantly associated with number of dislocations and age at first dislocation. Bony Bankart lesion was significantly associated with male gender and age at first dislocation.
Conclusion: The number of dislocations and age at first dislocation are the most significant predictors of glenoid bone loss in anterior shoulder instability.