To improve the etiological diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), we evaluated the value of individual and combined measurements of the following relevant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: Tau, 181p-Tau, Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, sAβPPα, and sAβPPβ. This study conducted in two centers included patients with FTD (n = 34), AD (n = 52), as well as a control group of persons without dementia (CTRL, n = 42). Identical clinical criteria and pre-analytical conditions were used while CSF biomarkers were measured using commercial single and multiplex quantitative immunoassays. Thorough statistical analyses, including ROC curves, logistic regressions, and decision trees, were performed. We validated in AD the specific increase of p-Tau levels and the decrease of Aβ42 levels, two biological hallmarks of this disease. Tau concentrations were highest in AD and intermediate in FTD when compared to CTRL. The most interesting results were obtained by focusing on amyloid biomarkers as we found out in FTD a significant decrease of sAβPPβ, Aβ38, and Aβ40 levels. Aβ38 in particular was the most useful biomarker to differentiate FTD subjects from the CTRL population. Combining p-Tau and Aβ38 led us to correctly classifying FTD patients with sensitivity at 85% and specificity at 82%. Significant changes in amyloid biomarkers, particularly for Aβ38, are therefore seen in FTD. This could be quite useful for diagnosis purposes and it might provide additional evidence on the interrelationship between Tau and AβPP biology which understanding is essential to progress towards optimal therapeutic and diagnostic approaches of dementia.